Since its early American inception, the Ph.D. has been the hallmark of American higher education. Yet it has not been above controversy. Recent discussions of its purpose vis-a-vis teaching and professional endeavors have continued a long tradition of examining graduate education. This bibliography offers an entree to the Ph.D. phenomenon. Of interest to administrators, educators, and scholars, the volume covers the history, research, and evolution of the Ph.D. An introductory essay offers an historical overview of the degree and sets the degree within the context of contemporary research. The entries, organized into four sections, cover the controversies, critical studies, and purpose of the Ph.D. degree for science and technology, social science, and the humanities disciplines.